What's Too Scary?
As Halloween approaches, Marilou Hyson, PhD, former associate executive director at NAEYC, talks about young children’s fears. Much of Marilou’s research and writing has focused on early childhood emotional development.
What is too scary for children at different ages?Each child is different, so it’s difficult to give hard and fast rules about what may be overwhelming for all children at different ages. The most important thing a grownup can do is to know an individual child and watch for her reactions to potentially scary images and situations. Pay attention to what she seems very worried about, avoids, or talks about, which can be clues that something is scary. Parents are often surprised by what frightens their child.
Our grandson Sam, who’s 13 now, was really frightened at the age of 2 by a life-size sculpture of a moose at an outdoor exhibit. We rounded a corner on a trail and there it was! Sam was visibly scared, staring and rigid, and he wanted to get out of there as fast as he could. When we got home, he pored over the map of the exhibit and recalled each sculpture, but when he got to the moose, he said, "We sip [skip], okay?" and went on to the next one.
Why is there a tradition of scary characters in books for young children?Many of those stories are traditional fairy tales or legends that originally were created for adults--certainly not for very young children. Grimm’s and Andersen's fairy tales are often very frightening, even for older children. The characters and events in many of these stories tap into some of our deepest childhood fears, such as losing our parents or having someone familiar change into a threatening stranger. Young children have a hard time distinguishing between a change in a person’s appearance and a change in who they really are underneath. For example, when a parent becomes very angry, a young child may wonder, Is that my same mom or is it really someone different? The answers are not clear-cut to young children.
Why do some children find it fun to be scared just a little?It's different for each child. When a child plays peekaboo of sorts with something he finds scary, it’s great for her to feel she can manage her fear. Mom puts on a mask (but not a terrifying one) and takes it off, or the child does so herself. The child peeks around the corner at a sort of scary Halloween display, but only from a distance. It's important that adults not make fun of children's fears no matter how irrational they seem. And saying “There is nothing to be afraid of” is not real persuasive to a young child.
This speaks to the development of emotion regulation. Gradually, especially within warm relationships and with our support, children begin to be able to manage their emotional reactions to various situations (including Halloween stuff). Adult support could be talking or drawing about what the child is scared of or worried about, helping him or her know what to expect (for example, at a Halloween party), or using puppets to act out a story in which a child is a little bit scared of something and then figures out how to deal with it. There are children’s picture books with that kind of theme as well.
Sometimes parents think it’s their job to remove all stress from children’s lives, but the truth is that, with our support, small bits of stress (child-size bits) are important sources of positive development, as children broaden their toolkit of coping strategies.
Any special tips about handling fears related to Halloween?Halloween has become a kind of adult holiday (which was not at all true a few generations ago), and with adults and teens dressing up as figures from horror movies and going to extremes to scare other adults (a harder task than scaring a little kid), we need to make sure there is a firm line against violent/bloody/gory and generally horrific images. Not just because they are "too scary" but because they do not represent the values or images that we want our children to be exposed to.
Pretend play is children's main way of making sense of their world. Through play, children can master fears and difficult experiences by reinventing them in a playful way. If Halloween can be another opportunity for children to engage in well-supported pretend play, then it has the potential to support children’s development.
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If your child is starting preschool and having difficulty with the new routine, follow these strategies for saying goodbye without tears.
By Ronnie Koenig
The start of preschool is a milestone that's often anticipated with great excitement and joy, but also with lots of crying, uncertainty, and heel digging -- from both kids and parents! "For children, the main source of anxiety around entering preschool is that they have absolutely no idea what to expect," says Katrina Green, a certified early childhood and early childhood special education teacher at the Just Wee Two program in Brooklyn, New York. "They have spent the first three to four years learning the rules and routines of their family life and they are completely unfamiliar with the new rules and routines they will encounter. For parents, the main source of separation anxiety is worrying that their child will feel abandoned." Read on to learn the best ways for you and your child to ease the separation anxiety and to successfully start this new adventure -- together and apart!
Many moms may see their child have a bad first reaction to preschool and immediately decide to pull him out of the classroom. But that's a bad idea: "It denies the child an opportunity to learn how to work through negative feelings and sets a precedent of not having to face problems," Green says. Instead, consistency is key when it comes to making preschool a part of your child's new routine. Simply going together on a regular basis will provide your little one with a strong sense of anticipation. Keep your goodbyes short and sweet so that your child knows what to expect but doesn't prolong your departure. When you pick him up at the end of the day, reinforce the idea that you came back, just like you said you would. This way, each day's drop-off won't feel like you're both starting teary and upsetting goodbyes all over again.
Parents often hear of the importance of play in preschool. But playing with dolls and blocks seems to have little to do with the academic knowledge that children will need to succeed in kindergarten. So why is it so important? Play is the foundation for all learning for young children, and giving your child the time and a few basic toys can provide her with a variety of valuable learning opportunities. “Play is how children begin to understand and process their world,” says Angie Rupan, Program Coordinator for Child Development Center in South San Francisco, CA and early childhood educator for over 20 years. “Children's play unlocks their creativity and imagination, and develops reading, thinking, and problem solving skills as well as further develops motor skills. It provides the base foundation for learning.”
Why is play so important and what do preschoolers learn when they play? Try a few of these simple ideas with items you have around your house and learn about the educational benefits that each can provide for your child.
Language and Vocabulary Development When playing with other children or adults, vocabulary and language skills are fostered. Your child will listen and learn the language she hears without even realizing. Children will learn to use language to communicate meaning as well as picking up new words and hearing the grammatical structure of the English language.
Vehicles and Animals.
Playing with cars, trucks and trains as well as animals provides for many new vocabulary words as children learn the names of each, what they do, what they eat or where you can find them. Additionally, children and adults can create all kinds of scenarios that the vehicles or animals might find themselves in, providing for further language and vocabulary development.
Dollhouse and Dolls.
with a dollhouse or dolls allows your child to reenact what happens in her everyday life, using the words and phrases she hears. You are likely to hear your own words come out of her mouth as she recreates events that have happened, perhaps with an outcome more suited to her liking!
Imagination and Creativity
In our fast paced and high tech society, children have fewer and fewer opportunities to use and develop their creativity. Children who are not given frequent opportunities to play may have a difficult time entertaining themselves as they simply do not know what to do without instruction. By providing opportunities for open ended play, your child will automatically get her creative juices flowing, and the possibilities are endless.
Dramatic Play. provide a few props such as dishes and play food, empty food boxes and a cash register or stuffed animals and a doctor’s kit, and your child will be transported into a different place! Watch and be amazed at what she will come up with as she plays.
Craft Supplies. Without a specific project complete, provide your child with a variety of craft supplies such as markers and crayons, scraps of fabric or paper, empty boxes or containers, glue, buttons and stickers. Allow her to create anything she likes and watch her inner artist emerge!
Problem Solving and Mathematics Children can solve complex problems that arise as they play and learn a few mathematical principals as well. Blocks and puzzles are excellent “basics” to provide your child with many opportunities to foster these important skills.
Playing with blocks provides for many problem solving scenarios. How can we make it balance? How tall can we make this tower? Can we build a castle? Children also learn some basic math concepts with the various shapes and sizes of the blocks.
When trying to make puzzle pieces fit, children are gaining important math and problem solving experience. Learning a bit about sizes (is the piece too big for that spot?) and shapes (does the shape of the piece look the same as the hole?) You can encourage this learning by engaging in conversations as your child plays. Your child will also gain an important sense of accomplishment as her practice leads to a completed puzzle in the end.
Gross and Fine Motor Development Gross motor skills involve the large muscles of the legs and arms while fine motor development is building the muscles of the hands that will be used for writing. Play can provide many opportunities to work on strengthening these muscles without your child even being aware of it!
Stringing Beads and Lacing.
Giving children beads and plastic tipped laces provide a fun way to work on fine muscle control. Your child can create a beautiful necklace while strengthening the fine motor muscles. Lacing cards or child safe needles and burlap will also provide fun “sewing” projects for young children.
Balls and Balance Beams.
Kicking balls and walking on balance beams can help your child become more coordinated. Get outside and kick a ball around, create a goal area to make it a game. Anytime you see a narrow brick wall or wooden plank, give your child some assisted practice at balancing. Gather up the toys you have around the house and make it a point to provide ample time for play. Playing around with your child is sure to provide many wonderful childhood memories and reap some great educational benefits as well!
Even children in preschool can enjoy books and learn from sharing books with you. Sharing books with your children can help them learn to talk better and get them ready to listen and learn in school.
Making Books A Part of Your Child’s Bedtime Routine
Set aside 20 to 30 minutes with the TV off for sharing books as part of your regular bedtime routine. Regular bedtime routines started when children are young help prevent future bedtime struggles. Teaching your children how to fall asleep alone by putting them in bed awake helps prevent future night wakings.
4 Year Olds Can:
What Parents Can Do:
Committee on Early Childhood (Copyright © 1994 American Academy of Pediatrics)
The information contained on this Web site should not be used as a substitute for the medical care and advice of your pediatrician. There may be variations in treatment that your pediatrician may recommend based on individual facts and circumstances.
You are tired and frazzled but have managed to get supper ready. The kids have scattered toys, papers, coats, and shoes from one end of the house to the other. You’ve instructed them to pick up and help set the table. They are not responding like you want. What can you do?
Getting children to complete chores can easily turn into a battle of nagging. We tend to get into the habit of nagging when children act as if they haven’t heard us, or we feel a reasonable time has elapsed to complete the still undone job. We can find ourselves spouting orders and feeling like a drill sergeant, or falling into other negative patterns such as yelling, blaming, threatening, lecturing, or name calling.
Skills To Gain Cooperation:Faber and Mazlish* outline the following five strategies:
Acknowledging emotions can help a child feel understood and more cooperative. Children can feel manipulated by any strategy when their feelings are disregarded or the relationship is reduced to a formula (I say this, now you respond).
Building time to enjoy each other can keep a relationship strong. Research indicates that positive experiences with parents enable children to better handle stress and negative emotions.
These components can help us nurture an emotional atmosphere where cooperation can grow and flourish.
Author: Patricia Faughn, M.Ed
University of Illinois Extension
*Source: A. Faber, E. Mazlish. How To Talk So Kids Will Listen & Listen So Kids Will Talk, 1980.
Whether it is July 4 or a special celebration, how to help kids enjoy the showIf your child is afraid of fireworks, certain celebrations can quickly become not-so-fun for your family. July 4 festivities, fireworks after a baseball game, even after-hour celebrations at Disney World suddenly go from happy events to places you need to leave as quickly as possible.
It's not surprising that fireworks are something that many little kids are not fans of. While beautiful and awe-inspiring and downright magical, they are often very loud.
Even shows put on by the professionals often include more than their fair share of booms, bangs, and pops.
And just because your kids are happy with the fireworks at first, it doesn't mean that contentment will last. Many little kids are able to sit through one show, but the next time they attend, end up leaving in tears. If a fireworks celebration is in your near future, there are things you can do to help your preschooler enjoy the festivities, rather than want to flee from them. Here's how:
Prepare them ahead of time. Given the chance, most little kids would want to like fireworks, it's just that the unexpected noise freaks them out. So do some preventative work. Explain to your preschooler where you are going and exactly what they are going to see and hear. Talk about how while fireworks are loud, they can't hurt your child or anyone in the family because they are so far away.
Ask questions. Find out from your child what it is exactly he or she doesn't like about fireworks.
The noise? The flashes of light? The dark sky? Once you know exactly what it is that is causing your child to be afraid, you can come up with a strategy to help him or her enjoy the show.
Answer questions. For some kids, it isn't the noise part of the fireworks that is scary, it's the balls of fire falling from the sky that cause some concerns.
So talk to your child and explain that the fireworks are very, very high up in the sky and won't be able to hurt anyone.
Do some homework. Hit the local library for a fireworks display movie, or do a google search of firework movies. Show your preschooler ahead of time exactly what they can expect -- the sights and the sounds.
Give your child fear-fighting tools. A pair of noise-cancelling headphones can do wonders for a child who doesn't like the sounds of fireworks. A light blanket will help a child who simply wants to take peeks at the bright lights, rather than take everything in at once. A flashlight is sure to please those kids that are afraid of the dark. And for those kids who are simply unsure about everything, can you park your car near enough to the display so your child can go inside of it if things get too intense? Letting your child know you will do what you can to help will go a long way to easing their fears.
Let time do its thing. If your 3-year-old isn't a fan of fireworks, your future 4-, 5-, or 6-year old probably will be.
So don't push the issue. Don't be afraid to skip the show for now, knowing that in the coming years your child will be right by your side, cheering on the fun.
Author: By Amanda Rock
By Wendy C. Fries
Reviewed by Louise Chang, MD
Your 3 to 5 year old is starting to show her true colors.
You probably noticed your preschooler's unique personality peeking out those first few months of life --reaching eagerly for a rattle or perhaps pushing away a teddy bear. But between the ages of 3 and 5, your child's personality is really going to emerge.
What sorts of changes can you expect during the preschool years, and what can parents do to help their child blossom? Or should you even try intervene at all?
Self-Expression and (a Little) Self ControlFrom age 3 to 5, kids are becoming more comfortable expressing themselves with words, says Kirby Deater-Deckard, psychology professor at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University and author of Parenting Stress.
During these years, preschoolers also gain more self-control. They begin to rely less on you and others and more on themselves. They're learning how to calm themselves when they get excited, frightened, or upset, and they're becoming more attentive and less emotionally reactive.
Preschoolers are also building their self-confidence. And they're "gaining lots of experience in learning how to treat others," Deater-Deckard says.
By age 5, kids typically start showing more concern for mom and dad, at last starting to understand that you have your own needs and feelings. They also begin to show affection more easily, develop a fantasy life, and may see-saw between being demanding and being cooperative.
Ways You Can Help Your Child's Personality GrowWhile your child's personality will blossom on its own naturally, there's actually a lot you can do to help as well as a few things to avoid.
1. Remember that your child is unique. "Children differ in remarkable ways from each other in their budding personalities," Deater-Deckard says. That includes siblings. Ultimately, "healthy personality development is fostered by parentingthat is sensitive and responsive to the individual strengths and needs of the child."
2. Encourage play. Play is a huge influence on a child's development. Pediatrician Tanya R. Altmann, author of Mommy Calls: Dr. Tanya Answers Parents' Top 101 Questions About Babies and Toddlers, says giving kids time to play is key to helping your child's personality blossom.
Play helps kids develop physically, mentally, and emotionally. It teaches them to work in groups, settle conflicts, develop their imagination, and try on different roles. When kids play, they practice decision-making, learn to stand up for themselves, create, explore, and lead.
3. Avoid labels. You want your child's personality to develop on its own without being shaped by your (or anyone else's) views. So avoid labeling your preschooler with words like shy, bossy, emotional, or tough.
4. Set an example. You're probably the person your preschooler sees and imitates the most. So it's up to you to model politeness, sharing, and patience.
5. Realize it's nature and nurture. Don't chalk up your child's personality to just his or her nature or the nurturing you provide. Both matter, Deater-Deckard says, and both work "together to create the diversity of children’s and adults' personalities."
6. Let your child be himself or herself, not an image of you. Maybe you're very outgoing, focused, quiet, or shy. You may want your child to be like that, too. But it's much more important that your child be him or herself and that your child make friends and meet the world in his or her own way.
There are more ways to help your child's personality grow. For instance, reading to your preschooler can be an important key, Altmann says. She also favors limiting television time.
Other experts recommend supporting your preschooler's interests and broadening your child's experiences. How you help your child's personality develop just may turn out to be as unique as your child.
Should You Try to Change Your Preschooler?
Preschoolers should be allowed to be themselves while still being encourage to try out things that may seem to stretch their emerging personalities.
By the preschool years, Deater-Deckard says, the major parts of personality are already pretty stable. But they're not rigid. "People change," Deater-Deckard says, and the parts of us that make up our personalities have a certain amount of flexibility.
Deater-Deckard suggests that instead of trying to change your child's personality, focus on giving the child experiences "that may support growth in new directions."
"I encourage parents to enjoy and even relish each child’s individual qualities and strengths," Deater-Deckard says, "while they try to figure out how to respond to that same child’s more challenging or difficult behaviors."
Deater-Deckard's main advice for parents is to "strive to create a loving and supportive environment, rather than trying to make the child become like a particular kind of person."
By Wendy C. Fries
Reviewed by Louise Chang, MD
Children Love to Learn
Children do best when they know what to expect.
In the morning:
Read at bedtime. This helps your child:
This is a great way to spend time together and share family traditions, while also teaching good eating habits and table manners.
Take Time to Talk and ListenChildren feel important when adults take the time to talk with them. Talking often, and about many things, helps them gain self-confidence. Ask about friendships and the activities that your child enjoys. Talk about your own best and worst experiences.
Ask your child:
Assign ResponsibilityWhen young children copy everyday household tasks, they are really learning how to contribute. With your support, tasks will soon be done with few reminders. As children grow older, they can begin to take on real responsibilities, such as:
Encourage Independence in Bathing and DressingAt first, this may take a little more time than helping your child get dressed or take a bath, but
it is time well spent. Independence comes with practice, and with your guidance.
If you get the clothes ready the night before, the morning routine will involve only getting dressed. This way, your child can focus on just one thing. Your child may need to be reminded of all the steps.
“You did a great job getting yourself ready for school today!”
Teach Simple Rules About Safety with AdultsKeeping children safe is an important job for parents. You want your child to respect and trust others, but you also need to teach your child to be careful. Following are some simple rules and ways that you can start a conversation with your child about different safety issues.
For parents struggling to find ways to encourage their kids to eat a healthy and balanced diet, gardening can be an important tool. Don’t let the idea overwhelm you. Gardening doesn’t require a perfectly level, large or sunny backyard. Try planting in a small raised bed or growing a few edibles in existing landscaping. Lean a trellis against an outside wall to grow beans or other edible vines. If you don’t have a lot of outdoor space, a few containers and soil in a sunny spot can be an easy way to grow herbs or some sweet cherry tomatoes that kids won’t be able to resist. Plants like zucchini, radishes and herbs are fairly easy to grow without a lot of fuss, making them a great return on your investment. The much bigger return is how planting a garden can affect not only your child’s body but also their brain and soul.
How gardening can affect the BRAIN:
There is a myriad of scientific concepts you can discuss with your kids when planting and tending to a garden. One study showed that children who participated in gardening projects scored higher in science achievement than those who did not. The wonder of seeing a garden grow may spark your kids to ask questions like: Why do the plants need sun? How does the plant “drink” water? Why are worms good for the plants? Soon you will be talking about soil composition, photosynthesis and more! Add a little math while gardening by measuring how much plants are growing from week to week or counting the flowers on each plant. Supplement the experience of gardening with books about plants, trips to a botanical garden, or a photo journal of the plants that you are growing.
Once you harvest your produce, think of all the brain-building vitamins, minerals and phytonutrients your kids will be eating and how that will continue to boost brain development. Foods like spinach, garlic and beets (which are all easy to grow) have been show to help with cognitive function and can give your kids an advantage in their growth and development. Even if kids may not love the foods they grow at first, teach them to keep tasting and trying and to train their taste buds to enjoy the bounty of their garden.
How gardening can affect the BODY:
When children participate in gardening, the fruits and vegetables that they are inspired to eat will no doubt have a positive effect on their body. But the act of gardening itself can also promote a healthy body. Kids LOVE to get their hands and feet in the dirt, which can run counter to the modern parenting style of compulsively keeping hands and surfaces cleaned and sanitized. However, consider the “hygiene hypothesis,” a theory that a lack of childhood exposure to germs actually increases a child’s susceptibility to diseases like asthma, allergies and autoimmune conditions by suppressing the development of the immune system. So getting dirty while gardening may actually strengthen a child’s immunity and overall health.
These days all kids could benefit from a little more physical activity and sunshine they’ll get while gardening. Activities like moving soil, carrying a heavy watering can, digging in the dirt and pushing a wheelbarrow can promote gross motor skills and overall strength for a more fit body. Plus, these activities, known as “heavy work,” have been shown to help kids stay calm and focused.
How gardening can affect the SOUL:
In this electronic age, kids need time for meaningful family connection. Time in the garden allows for team building and promotes communication skills. Planning a garden, planting the seeds and watching them grow give kids a sense of purpose and responsibility. Making sure that the plants get enough fertilizer, water and sun fosters mindfulness. The concepts learned while gardening, like composting food scraps for fertilizer or using gathered rainwater, can show kids a deep respect and responsibility for taking care of our planet.
Furthermore, studies show that when children have contact with soil during activities like digging and planting, they have improved moods, better learning experiences and decreased anxiety. Most important, the self-esteem a child gets from eating a perfect cucumber that he grew himself is priceless
Courtesy; PBSParents.org Authors:By Nimali Fernando, MD, MPH and Melanie Potock, MA, CCC-SLP
Emotional Health, Family Life, Science
Are children born optimistic or do they learn it from their environment?Every parent dreams of having children who are secure, well adjusted, and generally happy and positive in life. But what gives children a happy disposition? Are they born optimistic or is this dependent on their environment?
Bella A. Villarin, guidance counselor at the Ateneo de Manila High School, describes the optimistic child as someone who is “bubbly, always smiling, laughs with gusto, has excitement coming from within, sociable, assertive and confident.”
According to her, optimism is more than just being happy or looking at the brighter side of things. “It is likewise recognizing that there are little rocks along the way of life and that through hard work these challenges may be overcome. Optimism is synonymous to wellness,” she says.
Optimism: Inborn or acquired?
Villarin says that a child’s optimism may both be inborn and acquired. “There is the heredity factor. Genes that make up outgoing and assertive people may produce an optimistic child,” she says.
Another factor is the mother’s disposition when pregnant with her child. “While in the womb, a baby usually imbibes the nature of the mother,” Villarin adds.
But for those mothers who may have had difficult or emotionally stressful pregnancies, all is not lost. Villarin adds that a child’s optimism may also be acquired through a conscious effort from the people who are raising the child, and his child’s environment. “When a child is in a nurturing environment and is allowed to express herself and her feelings, then this contributes to a happy well-being,” she adds.
Happy parents, happy children
Have you noticed that when you’re in a bad mood, your child also becomes a bit agitated or somewhat reserved? A parent’s frame of mind, attitude and character can affect and even shape the personality of a child.
Villarin advises parents to reevaluate the goals, values and principles they’d like to impart to their kids. “Parents should sit down as a couple and share their views in life. From these, they should check how they can blend their priorities and raise their children to how they want them to be,” she advises.
It is important for a child to be in a setting that lives out the life that you want your child to eventually lead. Villarin adds, “Children model according to what they see. They learn from parents how problems are tackled, decisions are made and values are put to use. How you handle your life will definitely reflect on your children.”
Kathy M. Santos, mother of two, says, “Before I couldn’t help but be moody and tired when I’d come home from work especially when I had to deal with a difficult customer or I couldn’t resolve a problem at work. I noticed that my children would be reserved and would keep to themselves.”
A talk with the school’s counselor revealed that Kathy’s children saw her as unapproachable and one who easily blows a fuse when irked. “I knew then that I shouldn’t let my work’s stresses be carried over to my home,” Kathy says. Kathy then made an effort to leave concerns that are related to work at the office, and this has helped lighten the atmosphere at home.
Happiness and optimism in children stem from a healthy self-esteem. This is the basis of a child’s well-being and a key to his success as an adult. Parents are the main source of a child’s self-worth. Nurture your child’s positive self-image to help him sail through life’s challenges and appreciate its many joys.
According to Villarin, here are a few ways to build your child's self-esteem:
1. Express your feelings
“As a parent, you have to have a paradigm shift and be able to express yourself to your children both verbally and physically. Learning to do so teaches your children to express themselves too and they become more loving and sure of themselves.”
Listen actively to your child. Share insights and experiences. Villarin suggests swapping stories of the days’ events during mealtimes, and having a one-on-one “date” with your child to allow him to feel that this time is his. You can also engage in sports together or talk in the car while you’re caught in traffic. “Sometimes parents take the presence of their children for granted. They may be physically there but not really communicating with their children. Avoid saying ‘hmmm’ or ‘yes’ to pretend that you are listening. Children can perceive this. This is actually an insult to them,” Villarin says.
3. Teach kids to accept their strengths and limitations.
Kids who know what they can and cannot do are often more sure of themselves. They display more confidence in their capabilities and are more assured of what they want to achieve in life.
4. Avoid comparisons.
Be aware of your children’s different personalities. Enhance their strengths. Make sure that each child believes that you value him for who he is and not for what he can do. Avoid comments like, “Why can’t you be as neat as your sister?” or “Look, your brother can play basketball really well. You should try to shoot more baskets next time.”
5. Be mindful of your choice of words.
The words that we use when talking to our children can make a big difference in their lives. Words can break their spirit more than spanking or beating can. Villarin says, “Instead of saying that an action is ‘bad,’ say it's ‘not good’.”
Courtesy: Smart Parenting Magazine